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“When the wind of change blows, some people build

walls, others build windmills.” ― Chinese proverb


.: Open Source Software :.

Open Source Software (OSS) (also abbreviated as FLOSS or FOSS) is adevelopment methodology giving full accessibility to a product's kernel (source code) making the final product free to use and to share. In the spirit of open source model, different approaches are used to develop software, allowing for concurrent input which is different from the more closed commercial approach. The principles and practices are commonly applied to the development of source code for software that is made available for public collaboration, and it is usually released as open-source software. The OSS programs are programs whose licenses give users the freedom to run the program for any purpose, to study and modify the program, and to redistribute copies of either the original or modified program (without having to pay royalties to previous developers) given that you respect the GPL licensing.

Under GPL we can found varieties of software ranging from Operating System to email software. One can use Mandriva, Debian, GNU or any other OS under UNIX (Linux) and have free access to an infinite amount of free software without even having to pay anything to developers. A huge compilation of free software (OSS) is available at GNUWin. The last CD (GNUWin 64 or 32) includes numerous programs, completely free, which cover a wide spectrum of uses. The complete application list, sorted by type, is available here. The software included in GNUWin is not shareware nor freeware, but original free software and Open Source software, for which the source code is available, and that is and will always be free.

For information, here are some Linux equivalents of common Windows programs.

Major FOSS Projects:

Some important OSS/FS programs that are generally recognized as mature  include:
  1. Linux kernel,
  2. Apache (web server),
  3. Samba (supports interoperability with Windows clients by acting as a Windows file and print server),
  4. GNOME (a desktop environment),
  5. KDE (also a desktop environment),
  6. The GIMP (bitmapped image editor),
  7. MySQL (database emphasizing speed),
  8. PostgreSQL (database emphasizing functionality),
  9. PHP (hypertext preprocessor used for web development),
  10. Mailman (mailing list manager),
  11. XFree86 (graphics infrastructure which implements the X window system),
  12. bind (domain naming service, a critical Internet infrastructure service),
  13. GNU Compiler Collection (GCC, a suite of compilation tools for C, C++, and several other languages),
  14. Perl (programming/scripting language),
  15. Python (another programming/scripting language),
  16. Mozilla (web browser and email client),
  17. OpenOffice.org (office suite, including word processor, spreadsheet, and presentation software),
  18. the open source BSD Operating systems (FreeBSD (general purpose), OpenBSD (security-focused), NetBSD (portability-focused)).

A great deal of documentation is available at the Linux Documentation Project (LDP). See also this very instructive paper by David A. Wheeler giving a lot of info about FOSS/FOS.
A few acryonyms used in this small paragraph about FOSS/FS and their meaning:

Acronym    Meaning
GNU GNU’s Not Unix (a project to create an OSS/FS operating system)
GPL GNU General Public License (the most common OSS/FS license)
OS, OSes Operating System, Operating Systems


Open Source Software/Free Software/Free Open Source Software

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Creating Documents in (LA)TEX

TEX and LATEX are software systems for typesetting text into high-quality pdf or dvi file format. This package is a free software helping to prepare documents for printing and for on-screen viewing. It is particularly strong for documents that involve a lot of mathematical expressions, while refining the general aspects of typesetting.

Get a dis­tri­bu­tion

You first need a col­lec­tion of the soft­ware. Such a col­lec­tion is called a dis­tri­bu­tion, and comes with , , BibTeX, and ev­ery­thing else that will help you to per­form 'ing on your com­puter. Each dis­tri­bu­tion also comes with pro­grams spe­cific to your com­puter oper­ating system, so make your choice from the list be­low:

- Win­dows:
The most pop­u­lar choice here is the MiK dis­tri­bu­tion, which lets you eas­ily man­age pack­ages. Many peo­ple ad­vise be­gin­ners to get the prot bundling of MiK, which lets you in­stall by us­ing a .pdf file with links so you can read about your op­tions and then click on the right one. And it in­cludes other com­po­nents that help you work with your sys­tem.


- Unix-type sys­tems, in­clud­ing GNU/Linux:
The best choice here is  Live, which con­tains many pack­ages and pro­grams. It is freely avail­able over the In­ter­net or on disc; see the web page for de­tails. Note that most Unix sys­tems have as an in­stal­la­tion op­tion so you might al­ready have it or be able to eas­ily get it us­ing your sys­tem ad­min­is­tra­tion pack­age man­age­ment tool: RPM, or DEB, or what­ever.


- Mac­in­tosh:
The best option for Mac users is the Mac dis­tri­bu­tion, which is  Live with some Mac-spe­cific good­ies.


(La)TeX documentations


In order to begin working with the TeX typesetting system, you can follow this links for more instructions and documentations on these packages:


Text editing and LaTeX compiling

There are several editors that can be used with a LaTeX compiler. The standard compiler seems to be MiKTeX. You can use it with a text editor, like TeXnicCenter (free) or Winedt (shareware, cost about $30, but you can use it in evaluation mode for free), wich are interface editors, you can also use Mathtype or TeXaide (free), which write mathematical language in WYSIWYG (“what you see is what you get”) like Word Equation Editor does and then simply copy-and-paste into the LaTeX file that you are editing).


LaTeX is a high-quality typesetting system; it includes features designed for the production of technical and scientific documentation. You can use of the following text Editor with your distribution of TeX, (La)TeX:


  • TeXnicCenter : TeXnicCenter is an integrated documentation environment (IDE) for LaTeX. TeXnicCenter integrates all the functionality you need to create, write, build, fix, view and print your LaTeX documents (Under GPL).
  • TeXMaker : TeXmaker is one of the most popular open-source, multi-platform solution to LaTeX editing. This tool is available for all major platforms and possesses features that make a great case for any LaTeX text editor.
  • TeXStudio : TeXstudio is another open-source and multi-platform LaTeX editor, which is quite popular among the academia. This tool is based on the open-source TeXmaker.
  • LEd : LaTeX Editor, called later LEd, is an environment for rapid TeX and LaTeX document development.
  • Kile : Kile is a TeX/LaTeX editor to edit TeX/LaTeX source code. It runs on Unix-like systems including Mac OS X and Linux, as well as Microsoft Windows via the KDE on Windows initiative, with the Qt and KDE libraries installed (Under GNU GPL).
  • WinEdt : is a shareware Unicode (UTF-8) editor and shell for Microsoft Windows. It is primarily used for the creation of TeX (or LaTeX) documents, but can also be used to edit HTML or any other type of text file. It can be configured to run as a front-end for a variety of TeX systems, including MiKTeX, fpTeX and TeX Live (shareware).

Installing software to view PostScript and PDF files:

DVI files have many advantages: they are portable, they can be converted to a number of formats. Unfortunately, people prefer more suitable formats like PostScript (which allows the file to be printed by simply copying it to a PostScript printer) and PDF.


  • Ghostscript : an interpreter for PostScript™ and Portable Document Format (PDF) files. It is available both under the GNU GPL Affero license and for commercial licensing from Artifex. It has been under active development for over 20 years and has been ported to many different systems during this time.
  • Adobe Acrobat Reader: Adobe Reader lets you read and print from any system any document created as an Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) file, with its original appearance preserved.
  • Expert PDF Reader : Expert PDF Reader is a free pdf viewer software that lets you view and print pdf documents on windows operating systems.


More (La)TeX Features:

  • (La)TeX Packages can be accessed through The TeX Catalogue Online TEX.
  • JabRef is an open source bibliography reference manager. The native file format used by JabRef is BibTeX, the standard LaTeX bibliography format. JabRef is a desktop application and runs on the Java VM (version 8), and works equally well on Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X : JabRef
  • jPicEdt can generate LaTeX, eepic and PsTricks code from a user-friendly graphical interface : jPicEdt
  • Guide to the LaTeX markup language available following this link: Wikibooks/LaTeX and 'Oetiker's The not so Short Introduction to LaTeX2e'
  • MathType™ is a software application created by Design Science that allows the creation of mathematical notation for inclusion in desktop and web applications like TeX, LaTeX or MathML: MathType

More TeX Resources:

  • Rtf2LaTeX2e – rtf2latex2e is a program that translates RTF (rich text format) files into LaTeX files. It translates text formatting, tables, figures, and equations. The resulting LaTeX files are intended to be quite readable and suitable for editing.

  • LaTeX.org – LaTeX – A document preparation system.

  • Ctan.org – The Com­pre­hen­sive TeX Archive Net­work (CTAN) is the cen­tral place for all kinds of ma­te­rial around TeX. CTAN has cur­rently more than 5000 pack­ages. Almost 2500 con­trib­u­tors have con­tributed to it. Most of the pack­ages are free and can be down­loaded and used im­me­di­ately. .


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Useful Macroeconomic Links


http://www.dsge.net/  DSGE-NET DSGE-NET is an international research network for DSGE modeling, monetary and fiscal policy. Various staffs on macro and monetary policy fields.

http://www.dynare.org/ Dynare is a software platform for handling a wide class of economic models, in particular dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) and overlapping generations (OLG) models.

https://www.wiwi.hu-berlin.de/de/professuren/vwl/wipo/research/MATLAB_Toolkit    A Toolkit for Analyzing Nonlinear Dynamic Stochastic Models - Under MatlaB.

http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/links/data_free.htm Economic Data freely available online - The Economics Network.

http://ese.rfe.org/  ESE uses a beta version of Google Custom Search Engine to search over 23,000 economics websites and utilizes yolink to mine results and retrieve actionable, keyword-rich content (outdated!).

http://www.ipl.org/ ipl2 is a public service organization and a learning/teaching environment (Outdated and no longer updated!).

http://www.esa.doc.gov/ The Economics and Statistics Administration (ESA) releases 12 monthly and quarterly Principal Federal Economic Indicators collected by its constituent bureaus: the U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA).

http://rfe.org/ A guide sponsored by the American Economic Association, RFE lists more than 2,000 resources in 97 sections and sub-sections available on the Internet of interest to academic and practicing economists, and those interested in economics. .

http://www.worldbank.org/en/where-we-work The World Bank is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world.

http://www.imf.org/external/ns/cs.aspx?id=28 IMF - The World Economic Outlook (WEO) database is created during the biannual WEO exercise, which begins in January and June of each year and results in the April and September/October WEO publication. Selected series from the publication are available in a database format.

www.oecd.org/statsportal/ The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

http://febpwt.webhosting.rug.nl/ Penn World Tables - PWT is a database with information on relative levels of income, output, input and productivity, covering 182 countries.

https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/ Official United Nations population estimates and projections that have been prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat.

http://sdw.ecb.int/ Statistical Data Warehouse (SDW) - European Central Bank (EU).

http://www.hcp.ma/ Haut commissariat au plan - Morocco - Statistical and Economic Studies about the country (French).

http://www.vanderbilt.edu/AEA/ American Economic Association website.

http://economics.ca/ Canadian Economics Association Website.

http://www.nber.org/   National Bureau of Economic Research Website (NBER).

http://ideas.repec.org/  IDEAS the largest bibliographic database dedicated to Economics and available freely on the Internet. Based on RePEc, it indexes over 2,400,000 items of research, including over 2,200,000 that can be downloaded in full text. .

You can - of course - find more info with a simple search on google


You can also use this alternative


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Links to Selected Economists Websites


Akerlof, G. A: http://emlab.berkeley.edu/users/akerlof/

Amano, R.: http://www.bankofcanada.ca/ec/ramano/

Ambler, S. : http://www.er.uqam.ca/nobel/r10735/

Auerbach, A. J.: http://www.econ.berkeley.edu/~auerbach/index.html

Bai, J.: http://www.econ.nyu.edu/user/baij/

Barro, R.: http://www.economics.harvard.edu/faculty/barro

Bernanke, B.: https://www.brookings.edu/experts/ben-s-bernanke/ (Ex-Président de la FED)

Blanchard: O. J.: http://econ-www.mit.edu/faculty/blanchar/index.htm

Campbell, J. Y.: http://www.economics.harvard.edu/faculty/campbell

Christiano, L. J.: http://faculty.wcas.northwestern.edu/~lchrist/

Clarida, R.: http://www.columbia.edu/~rhc2/

Cooley, T.: http://w4.stern.nyu.edu/faculty/facultyindex.cgi?id=35

Davidson, J.: http://people.exeter.ac.uk/jehd201/

Diebold, F.X.: http://www.ssc.upenn.edu/~fdiebold/

Douch, M.: http://www.mdouch.net

Faria, J. R.: http://sites.google.com/site/jockafaria/home

Farmer, R.: http://farmer.sscnet.ucla.edu/

Favero, C.: http://didattica.unibocconi.eu/myigier/index.php?IdUte=48917

Friedman, M.: http://www.ideachannel.com/Friedman.htm

Fuhrer, J.: http://www.bos.frb.org/economic/econbios/fuhrer.htm

Gali, J.: http://www.crei.cat/people/gali/

Gertler, M.: http://www.econ.nyu.edu/user/gertlerm/

Granger, C.: http://economics.ucsd.edu/

Hall S.G.: http://www.niesr.ac.uk/staff/staffdetail2.php?StaffID=191

Hamilton, J. D.: http://weber.ucsd.edu/~jhamilto/

Hansen, B.: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~bhansen/

Hansen, L. P.: http://home.uchicago.edu/~lhansen/

Hendry, D. F.: http://www.nuffield.ox.ac.uk/users/hendry/

Ireland, P.: http://fmwww.bc.edu/ec/ireland.php

Judd, K.: http://bucky.stanford.edu

Juselius K. : http://www.econ.ku.dk/okokj/

Kilian, L.: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~lkilian/

Kollman, R.: http://www.robertkollmann.com/

Levine, P.: http://www2.surrey.ac.uk/economics/people/paul_levine/

Li, Q.: http://econweb.tamu.edu/li/

McFadden, D.: http://www.econ.berkeley.edu/~mcfadden/

Monacelli, T.: http://didattica.unibocconi.eu/mypage/index.php?IdUte=49529&cognome=MONACELLI&nome=TOMMASO

Pagan, A.: http://www.economics.unsw.edu.au/nps/servlet/portalservice?GI_ID=System.LoggedOutInheritableArea&maxWnd=_Staff_AdrianPagan_

Perron, P.: http://econ.bu.edu/perron/

Pesaran, H. M.: http://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/faculty/pesaran/

Phelps, E.: http://www.columbia.edu/~esp2/

Prescott: E.C.: http://www.minneapolisfed.org/research/prescott/

Quah, D.: http://econ.lse.ac.uk/staff/dquah/index_own.html

Romer, C.: www.econ.berkeley.edu/~cromer/index.shtml

Romer, D.: http://elsa.berkeley.edu/~dromer/

Romer, P.: http://www.stanford.edu/~promer/

Samuelson, P.: http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2010/samuelson-memorial-0412.html

Sargent, T.: http://homepages.nyu.edu/~ts43/

Schorfheide, F.: http://www.econ.upenn.edu/~schorf/

 Sims, C.: http://www.princeton.edu/~sims/

 Söderlind, P.: http://home.datacomm.ch/paulsoderlind/

Solow, R.: http://homepage.newschool.edu/het/profiles/solow.htm

Stock, J.: http://www.economics.harvard.edu/faculty/stock

Svensonn, L.: http://people.su.se/~leosven/

Taylor, J.: http://www.stanford.edu/~johntayl/

 Uhlig, H.: http://www2.wiwi.hu-berlin.de/institute/wpol/html/uhlig/uhlig.html

Watson, M.: http://www.princeton.edu/~mwatson/

Woodford, M.: http://www.columbia.edu/~mw2230/

Disclaimer: Some information may have changed since this page was updated (Economists are generally on perpetual brownian motion)! Thanks for sending me any updated info!

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Central Banks and Monetary Authorities


World Bank:  http://www.worldbank.org/

International Monetary Fund - IMF:   http://www.imf.org

US Federal Reserve Bank System:   http://www.federalreserve.gov/

The European Central Bank (ECB):   http://www.ecb.int/home/html/index.en.html

Bank of Canada:   http://www.bankofcanada.ca/en

Reserve Bank of Australia :   http://www.rba.gov.au

Reserve Bank of New Zealand:   http://www.rbnz.govt.nz/

Reserve Bank of India:   http://www.rbi.org.in/

Central Bank of Morocco - Bank Al Maghreb:   http://www.bkam.ma/

For more Central bank and monetary authority websites:   http://www.reserve-bank.com or at https://www.bis.org/cbanks.htm

The Information included on this website and any GNU Public Licensed Material (FSF) is provided for educational purposes only.

Warning: Some informations contained in this document are in part recovered from the internet and all thanks go to those who spent their invaluable time providing it.

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Page Last Updated : --- Friday, November 17/2017 ---


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